Whether you are sexually active or not, in a monogamous relationship, or practicing safe sex, you are at risk of cervical cancer.19
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cervix.19 Almost all cervical cancer cases are linked to the human papillomavirus (HPV), a widespread sexually transmitted infection.18 HPV can spread through any intimate contact and often has no symptoms. One partner may be all it takes for you to get infected, and even if you are not sexually active now, your future partner may unknowingly pass it to you.19
There are over 150 types of HPV, with some carrying a larger risk than others. Low-risk HPVs may appear as genital warts, but seldom cause cancer.3 There are 14 high-risk HPV types that can cause cervical cancer and other types of cancer in both men and women.6 Among these, HPV types 16, 18, 52 and 58 are responsible for 75% of cervical cancer cases.2,20,21
Thankfully, cervical cancer is highly preventable.22 You can learn more about HPV prevention, including the options available and how to receive optimal protection, to reject your risk.
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among Malaysian women and ranks the second most frequent cancer affecting women between the ages of 15 and 44.5 Every year, about 1,740 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 991 succumb to the disease.5
Our advocates share their stories on the importance of HPV protection.
Take steps to lower your risk of cervical cancer and other diseases caused by HPV.
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic Information About Cervical Cancer. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/basic_info/index.htm. Accessed 7 December 2022.
2 de Martel C, Plummer M, Vignat J, Franceschi S. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type. Int J Cancer. 2017;141(4):664.
3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/hpv.htm. Accessed 5 December 2022.
4 Cancer.Net. HPV and Cancer. https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/prevention-and-healthy-living/hpv-and-cancer. Accessed 5 December 2022.
5 ICO HPV Information Centre. Singapore human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet 2021. https://hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/SGP_FS.pdf. Accessed 6 December 2022.
6 National Cancer Institute. HPV and Cancer. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-and-cancer. Accessed 5 December 2022.
7 American Cancer Society. HPV and Cancer. https://www.cancer.org/healthy/cancer-causes/infectious-agents/hpv/hpv-and-cancer-info.html. Accessed 5 December 2022.
8 American Cancer Society. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html. Accessed 7 December 2022.
9 National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. HPV (Human Papillomavirus). https://www.nfid.org/infectious-diseases/hpv/. Accessed 2 December 2022.
10 National Cervical Cancer Coalition. HPV and Relationships. https://www.nccc-online.org/hpvcervical-cancer/hpv-and-relationships/. Accessed 7 December 2022.
11 Khoo SP, Bhoo-Pathy N, Yap SH, et al. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage in a cross-sectional, multiethnic, community-based female Asian population. Sex Transm Infect. 2018;94(4):277-283.
12 Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM. HPV in men: An update. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2011;15(3):231-234.
13 Khoo SP, Shafii MKA, Bhoo-Pathy N, et al. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of anogenital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) carriage in a cross-sectional, multi-ethnic, community-based Asian male population. PLoS One. 2021;16(1): e0245731.
14 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STD Facts - HPV and Men. https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv-and-men.htm. Accessed December 2, 2022.
15 Bruni L, Albero G, Serrano B, et al. ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Singapore. Summary Report 22 October 2021. https://hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/SGP.pdf?t=1641992267398. Accessed 5 December 2022.
16 Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(3):175-201.
17 Giuliano AR, Viscidi R, Torres BN, et al. Seroconversion following anal and genital HPV infection in men: The HIM study. Papillomavirus Res. 2015;1:109-115.
18 World Health Organization. Cervical cancer. Published 22 February 2022. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cervical-cancer. Accessed 16 February 2023.
19 World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Questions and answers about human papillomavirus (HPV). January 2020. Document number: WHO/EURO:2020-5631-45396-64962. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/360807. Accessed 6 June 2023.
20 Aho J, Hankins C, Tremblay C, et al. Genomic Polymorphism of Human Papillomavirus Type 52 Predisposes toward Persistent Infection in Sexually Active Women. J Infect Dis. 2002; 190:46–52.
21 Chan PK. Human Papillomavirus Type 58: The Unique Role in Cervical Cancers in East Asia. Cell Biosci. 2012 May 9;2(1):17.
22 National Cancer Institute. Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention. https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/causes-risk-prevention. Accessed 8 June 2023.